Chapter – Clinics & Complications

  • Leptin Deficiency  – available in Português portugal

    The leptin/melanocortin pathway plays a key role in the hypothalamic control of food intake. It is activated following the systemic release of the adipokine leptin (LEP) and its subsequent interaction with the leptin receptor (LEPR) located on the surface of neurons of the arcuate nucleus region in the hypothalamus (figure 1). The downstream signals that regulate satiety and energy homeostasis are then propagated [read more…]

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  • MC4R And MC3R Mutations  – available in Português portugal

    The leptin/melanocortin pathway plays a key role in the hypothalamic control of food intake. It is activated following the systemic release of the adipokine leptin (LEP) and its subsequent interaction with the leptin receptor (LEPR) located on the surface of neurons of the arcuate nucleus region in the hypothalamus. [read more…]

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  • Short Stature And Obesity: A Broad Range Of Diagnosis  – available in Español spain and in Português portugal

    Half of the population has by definition a size below average, 25 % below the 25th centile of reference growth curves and 3 % below the third centile. The 25th centile or – 2 standard deviations (SD) in height is a commonly accepted definition of short stature. Major differences in height are noticeable among populations around the world making the choice of the reference curves critical (see corresponding chapter) [read more…]

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  • Tall Stature And Obesity

    Postnatal linear growth is controlled by genetic, endocrine and nutrition factors. Although adequate nutrition is essential for normal growth of the child, excessive fat tissue accumulation may cause abnormalities in the trajectory of linear growth. Obesity in children and adolescents has been long associated with tall stature. First studies presenting the hypothesis that overnutrition accelerates linear growth were published in 1960s. [read more…]

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  • Sleep-Disordered Breathing In Obese Children. Mechanisms, Diagnosis and Management  – available in Português portugal

    In order to develop normally, children spend long hours of the day sleeping, around 12-13 hours/day for pre-schoolers (age 3-5 years), 10-11 hours/day for school-aged (age 5-10 years) and 8-10 hours/day for adolescents (age 14-16 years). Although all the functions of sleep remain unfully understood, sleep is vital for restoration of body systems, energy conservation, brain development and memory consolidation [read more…]

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  • Insulin Resistance And The Risk Of Diabetes

    Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the most common metabolic alterations related to obesity, representing a key element of metabolic syndrome. Mechanisms linking obesity to IR and diabetes are multiple, sharing several molecular and genetic bases. Both obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with insulin resistance, but fortunately, most obese, insulin-resistant individuals do not develop hyperglycemia. [read more…]

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  • Cardiovascular Complications Of Obesity  – available in Português portugal

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) develop slowly over the life since fetal life and they are considered the main cause of death worldwide. In 2010 the American Heart Association defined a new concept of ideal cardiovascular health as the presence of both, ideal health behaviours (non-smoking, ideal BMI, physical activity and healthy diet) and ideal health factors (total cholesterol concentration, blood pressure and fasting glucose within the normal range). [read more…]

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  • Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease In Children

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is nowadays one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease in children (1). It is defined by hepatic fat infiltration >5% hepatocytes, as assessed by liver biopsy, in the absence of excessive alcohol intake (read more…]

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  • Childhood obesity: Implications In Pubertal Process

    Neuroregulation of weight control and pubertal initiation are interrelated. We will examine the factors that regulate appetite and satiety, as well as energy homeostasis and we will elaborate on the influence that these factors exert on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis system. Leptin plays a key role in this regulation. [read more…]

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  • Orthopaedic Complications

    The objective of this paper is the presentation of obesity-related musculoskeletal problems in childhood while a) focusing on the prevention of anticipated discomforts in adulthood and b) providing information on how best to address such complications in children who are obese. One of the most common problems found in young people is, in particular, the strain on the lower extremities. [read more…]

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  • Characteristics Of Oral Health In Early Onset Obesity

    The origins, and metabolic and physical outcomes of early onset of obesity are largely described in previous chapters. This section focuses on the oral cavity of children who are overweight or obese. Epidemiological and case-control studies have determined orofacial features specific to children of this population. [read more…]

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