Chapter – Biology

  • The Adipose Organ: Implications For Prevention And Treatment Of Obesity  – available in Español spain and in Português portugal

    Adipocytes are characterized by the abundance of cytoplasmic lipid droplets (1). White adipocytes show a unique large spherical lipid droplet (unilocular adipocytes) that predominate its general morphology FIG 1. In fact a thin rim of cytoplasm surrounding the lipid droplet and including a crescent shaped nucleus forms the rest of the cell. Thus, the size of the cell is tightly related to the size of the lipid droplet. [read more…]

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  • Brain-White Adipose Tissue Relationship: Early Features  – available in Español spain and in Português portugal

    Central and autonomic nervous systems are involved in the regulation of whole body energy by regulating its different components: intake, expenditure and storage. The different functions (metabolic, secretory, plasticity) of adipose tissues are indeed deeply controlled by the autonomic nervous system. In most mammals, two types of adipose tissue, white and brown, are present. Both are able to store energy in the form of triacylglycerols [read more…]

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  • Intestinal Microbiome In Obesity  – available in Português portugal

    Human intestine is a complex ecosystem maintained by interactions of numerous species of microbiota, human organism and the ingested substrates. It’s estimated that number of bacterial cells colonizing human intestine exceeds the number of human cells in the rest of the body. Between 10 to 100 trillion of bacteria existing inside the intestine belong to 10 phyla and at least 15000 recognized species. [read more…]

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  • Epigenetics In Transgenerational Responses To Environmental Impacts: Facts And Gaps  – available in Español spain and in Português portugal

    There is increasing interest in non-genetic and non-cultural mechanisms transferring a memory of parental exposure to various environments and determining the reactivity of subsequent generations to their environment during their lifetimes. However, fundamental questions remain about the nature, roles and relative importance of epigenetic marks and processes, non-coding RNAs, or other mechanisms, and their persistence over generations [read more…]

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  • Adipose Tissue Pollutants And Obesity  – available in Español spain

    During the last decades there has been a dramatic increase in obesity world-wide. There are several reasons for such an increase, including diet and lifestyle. Recently toxicological and epidemiological evidence pointed to a likely contribution of environmental pollutants which has led to the obesogen concept. Perinatal exposure to several endocrine disruptors leads to increased body weight later in life as well as to several metabolic disorders [read more…]

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  • Early Immune Disorders Induced By Childhood Obesity  – available in Español spain and in Português portugal

    Childhood obesity is increasing at epidemic proportions and is a massive public health concern. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and alteration in immune responses. This chronic low grade sterile or “cold” inflammation has been proposed to underpin the development of obesity related co-morbidites including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. [read more…]

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  • Prenatal Experience And Childhood Obesity  – available in Español spain and in Português portugal

    There is growing interest in the role of early experience in the aetiology of obesity. In particular, prenatal life may be of importance as a ‘critical period’ when the risk of development and persistence of overweight and obesity is increased. At present developmental influences on obesity in humans are poorly understood, although there is increasing evidence of links between prenatal factors and adiposity in childhood. [read more…]

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